During this time, a psychiatrist tries to interpret where the trouble areas are. The Ego works on the reality principle and is concerned with keeping our thoughts and actions in step with the real world. The definition of the word abnormal is simple enough but applying this to psychology poses a complex problem: what is normal? For example, obesity is a statistically normal but not associated with healthy or desirable. He also only studied one child Little Hans when developing his theory of psychosexual development, and even then he only corresponded with the boy's father by letter. These are called social norms. Failure to resolve the Oedipus and Electra complexes may lead to relationship difficulties and anxieties later in adult life. For example, raised levels of dopamine may be a consequence rather than a cause of schizophrenia.
For example drink driving was once considered acceptable but is now seen as socially unacceptable whereas homosexuality has gone the other way. The most common form of psychosurgery is a prefrontal lobotomy. It is important as the study population is the most likely group of people that will benefit from the new pharmacy services if the transformation is implemented. Make sure you answer the specific question asked! However, it is sometimes used as a last resort for treating severe depression. If people break these rules, then they are deviating away from social norms and therefore, could be labeled as abnormal. These differences in ideas mean that the different models are sometimes in conflict with one another. Read the brief profile of Willard and follow the directions to complete the chart: Willard is an angry man.
Copyright Statement: I do not own the rights to any of the images used in this presentation. While most previous studies investigated public view on the possible extended roles of community pharmacist, the current study is one of the earlier studies to explore the public acceptance… 1148 Words 5 Pages Psychodynamic Model of Abnormality The psychodynamic model of abnormality is useful to an extent. What could have caused that? The focus of this approach is on genetics, neurotransmitters, neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, biochemistry etc. It helps us make cut — off points in terms of diagnosis. I will describe three criteria of abnormality I believe are the most salient and valid. We can see this from the Watson and Raynor experiment.
The next type of conditioning is operant. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia, for example, are psychological disorders found mostly in Western cultures, which value the thin female body. How rare is too rare. This definition of abnormality can be applied to certain behaviours. Cognitive theories of behaviour try to account for free will and decision making, and so it may be better to combine behaviourist and cognitive approaches when trying to explain abnormal behaviour. The uses checklists of behaviours, which patients are expected to show some of but not all.
In summary, you need to try to mention a range of information in question a , so try to mention things from all three bullet points in the specification so here, something from each of the three approaches. Vividness can help to make people successful etc. Particularly sexual and aggressive drives. For example, aversion therapy has been imposed on people without consent. Words: 325 - Pages: 2. Seeing as these abnormalities are focused on humans, my model would have a biological foundation.
The unconscious According to Freud, the unconscious forms about 90% of the human mind, and the remaining 10% is conscious. They claim that the symptoms are merely the tip of the iceberg — the outward expression of deeper underlying emotional problems. Jahoda 1958 defined six criteria by which mental health could be measured: o Positive view of the self o Capability for growth and development o Autonomy and independence o Accurate perception of reality o Positive friendships and relationships o Environmental mastery — able to meet the varying demands of day-to-day situations According to this approach, the more of these criteria are satisfied, the healthier the individual is. This is a set of techniques for treating the unconscious causes of mental disorders and built up a psychoanalytic theory of how human personality and abnormality develop from childhood. Adult mental health disorders can be caused by childhood trauma There is evidence that adult disorders develop as the result of childhood trauma, for example children that fail to form secure attachments may develop anxiety around relationships as adults. Thus, for instance, the healthy child and the biological model both agree that certain predetermined behavioural pattern may be impervious to environmental forces.
Amine hypothesis — low levels of mono amines predominantly noradrenaline and serotonin. He's been this way since he was a child and doesn't know why. There are six major models of abnormality that suggest the cause of abnormal behavior: medical model, psychoanalytic model, behavioral model, cognitive model, humanistic model, and the sociocultural model. But how do we know what is normal and what it is not? First, self actualisation is theoretically ideal concept that very few people are actually able to achieve. It can also be used for those who suffer from schizophrenia and manic depression.
It does not look for an underlying cause for a psychological issue. The medical model of abnormality suggests that the cause of abnormal behavior could be found in a physical examination, which may show a hormonal imbalance, a chemical deficiency, or a brain injury. The first systematic attempt to do this was by Emil Kraepelin who published the first recognized textbook on psychiatry in 1883. Historically, they were thought to be possessed by evil spirits or the devil — especially women who were burned as witches! This tutorial was originally created by: Lisa Bustamante, Debbie Howe-Tennant, andChristina Ramo in 1996. Also the success of combination therapies suggests more than one cause.
It involves the use of psychoanalysis, where the therapist uses techniques such as dream analysis, and hypnosis to explore the patient's unconscious mind. He was also put under sever stress while he was part of the experiment. He ultilizestechniques that enable the determination of the functional relationship betweenthe maladaptive behavior and the environmental stimuli that are affecting it. This is the child learning the abnormal behaviour of a phobia of dogs through social learning. Examples of abnormality can take many different forms and involve different features, so that, what at first sight seem quite reasonable definitions, turns out to be quite problematical. Some of these are fascinating -! Therefore, if we were to adopt literal approach to defining abnormality, we would conclude that any rare behaviour or ability is abnormal. I believe everyday of our lives we react and respond to our environment and can always change by learning.