In accordance with the Treaty of Wallingford, a succession agreement signed by Stephen and Matilda in 1153, Henry was crowned in October 1154. The Anglo-Norman barons were gathered together at Westminster at Christmas 1126, where they swore to recognise Matilda and any future legitimate heir she might have. This he carried out with aplomb, travelling with a great retinue, his lavish style made a vivid impression on the French. Political friendships, termed amicitia in Latin, were important during the 12th century, and Henry maintained a wide range of these, mediating between his friends in various factions across his realm when necessary, and rewarding those who were loyal to him. His height is medium, so that neither does he appear great among the small, nor yet does he seem small among the great. The chroniclers, authors and letter writers record anecdotes but these may be the medieval equivalent of urban legends, or tales improved in the telling.
Exasperated, Henry hastily and publicly conveyed his desire to be rid of the contentious Archbishop; and four ambitious knights took the king at his word and murdered Beckett in his own cathedral on December 29, 1170. Born in 1929, he was educated at the High School, Newcastle-under-Lyme, and at Exeter College, Oxford, where he was an Open Scholar in History. It would be his last military campaign. Henry was held there over the winter, but in the spring of 1089 the senior elements of the Normandy nobility prevailed upon Robert to release him. The intrigues of the French parties culminated in the , , by the 's partisans at on 10 September. The historian Charles David dismissed this argument in 1929, showing the more extreme claims for Henry's education to be without foundation.
There were a number of Englishmen who opposed this compromise, but it was clear that this is what had to happen. The treatise On the Laws of England describes the new system. Despite his plans for Matilda, the King was succeeded by his nephew, , resulting in a period of civil war known as. Robert of Bellême turned against Henry once again, and when he appeared at Henry's court in 1112 in a new role as a French ambassador, he was arrested and imprisoned. His goal was to persuade Henry to modify his demands against the French. The faithful and his illegitimate son remained by him to the end. The events of the final days of the siege are unclear: the besiegers had begun to argue about the future strategy for the campaign, but Henry then abandoned Mont Saint-Michel, probably as part of a negotiated surrender.
. I knew the man was kick-ass. Henry, weak and senile, then allowed Edward to take charge of the government. I was particulary interesting in Warren's take on his foreign policy and how he wanted his lands to be a federation, not an empire, so all his sons could inherit his lands-when they weren't to busy plotting against him. Much like their ancestors the youth were impatient and easily influenced, the sons of Henry were no different. Itinerant justices began to emerge under Henry, travelling around the country managing , and many more laws were formally recorded.
His quarrel with Becket affected his dealings with the King of France. By this point King Stephen is eager to bring an end to the long conflict. Matilda had been educated in a sequence of convents, however, and may well have taken the vows to formally become a nun, which formed an obstacle to the marriage progressing. William's second son, Richard, had died in a hunting accident, leaving Henry and his two brothers to inherit William's estate. Around 1110, Henry attempted to arrest the young William Clito, but William's mentors moved him to the safety of Flanders before he could be taken. Henry was possessed of the fearful Angevin temper, apparently a dominant family trait.
All and were written in Latin. Further Reading The best biography remains L. Within these 65 years Warren received Wolfson Literary Prize for History in 1973 for his work on this tomb. Royal Tombs of Medieval England. King Philip mimicked Henry's court and, like Henry, did his best to give good government to his subjects. In he succeeded Stephen as King of England, and in took the additional title of Lord Dominus of Ireland.
In that year the dispute took a new turn. Henry's reforms allowed the emergence of a body of common law to replace the disparate customs of feudal and county courts. Henry purchased the in western Normandy from Robert, but William and Robert deposed him in 1091. Henry and his second wife, Adeliza of Louvain, had no children. It was much more of a technical, in-depth look at Henry's reign and how he achieved things than I expected.
Warren is quick to point out that this should not diminish the achievement of this King and his reign, for King Henry did try to do right by his subjects and his reign left a positive legacy. He made generous terms with his sons; the king of France was cowed. And like all noblemen, he was addicted to hunting and hawking. Administration and Justice The most constructive and enduring part of Henry's work lay in England. The requested list arrived, the first name on it was that of his beloved John, the son he had trusted and fought for had deserted him to join the victors. The brothers then agreed to the , under which Robert released Henry from his oath of homage and recognised him as king; Henry renounced his claims on western Normandy, except for Domfront, and agreed to pay Robert £2,000 a year for life; if either brother died without a male heir, the other would inherit his lands; the barons whose lands had been seized by either the King or the Duke for supporting his rival would have them returned, and Flambard would be reinstated as bishop; the two brothers would campaign together to defend their territories in Normandy.