Wages, bonus, production norms, leave, retirement benefits and terms and conditions of service. References to the adjudication piled up, the industrial tribunals were overwhelmed with cases, and lengthy delays and general frustration resulted. It has, further, been argued that in a planned economy, the relations between the labour and management have also to be on planned basis. Rationalization, introduction of new technology, tight productivity norms have added to this burden and made the life of a worker some what uneasy. Each of these steps has its particular character and aim, and therefore, each requires a special kind of intellectual and moral activity and machinery.
International Collective Bargaining Collective bargaining is an international human right recognized in Article 23 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Even though we commonly think of the outcomes of negotiation in one-shot economic terms, like negotiating over the price of a car, every negotiation in organizations also affects the relationship between the negotiators and the way the negotiators feel about themselves. . The industrial relations approach can be traced to the Industrial Disputes Act of 1947 in our country, which established a legal basis for union participation in the management. Thus collective bargaining serves to bridge the emotional and physiological gulf between the workers and employers though direct discussions.
Within the management also, there may be differences. Mediation is the intervention usually uninvited, of some outside person of body with a view of getting conciliation or to force a settlement, compulsory arbitration is extreme mediation. Thus, the purpose of the Collective Bargaining is to reach a mutual agreement between the employee and the employer with respect to the employment terms and enjoy a long term relationship with each other. In general, it tends to be more cooperative than distributive bargaining. It is a one way action.
On a broad scale, using this method well can result in more ethical way of doing business. The Bombay Industrial Relations Act 1946 which provided for the rights of workers for collective bargaining. Under it, the economic issues like wages, salaries and bonus are discussed. The coverage of collective bargaining is very uneven; in some industries almost all the workers are under agreement, while in others only a small portion of the employees of the firms are covered by the agreement. The main function of the trade unions is to protect the interests of the workers through constructive programmes and collective bargaining is one of the devices to attain that objective through negotiations with the employers. Negotiations form an important aspect of the process of collective bargaining. It is a measure to distribute equitably the benefits derived from industry among all the participants including the employees, the unions, suppliers the management, the customers, and the public.
Encyclopedia Britannica defined collective bargaining as a process of discussion and negotiation between an employer or group of employees and a group of work-people to reach agreement on working conditions. The minimum wage law is justified on the following grounds: i First, the problem of unemployment that might erupt is slight exaggeration. The right of initiative is circumscribed within a framework of legislation. When the negotiations are over, this way of looking at each other can be hard to set aside, and unity in the company can suffer. Continuous Bargaining Continuous bargaining is a method of collective bargaining in which ongoing negotiations between the employer and the union representative take place. But this section is not allowed in certain region or states.
In the absence of requisite information, nothing concrete is achieved. The psychological aspects of the collective bargaining are essentially important for the people involved in the process. It establishes regular and stable relationship between the parties involved. In the past, the concept used to be emotional, turbulent and sentimental, but now it is scientific, factual and systematic. Strength: It is an industrial democracy at work. When there is a backlog of bitterness between both the parties, attitudinal structuring is required to maintain smooth and harmonious industrial relations.
It is a group process, wherein one group representing theemployers and the other representing employees sit together tonegotiate terms of employment. Collective bargaining prevents the Government from using the force because an amicable agreement can be reached between employer and employees for implementing the legislative provisions. Essay Features of Collective Bargaining: The essential features of collective bargaining are as follows: 1. In such case, before the expiry of agreement both parties consult each other and can terminate or renew the agreement depending upon the circumstances. Hence, the cases involving industrial disputes should be to compulsory arbitration. There are certain problems which hinder the growth of collective bargaining in India. Distributive bargaining: It involves haggling over the distribution of surplus.
For example, union workers are more than 18 percent more likely to have affordable health insurance, and 22 percent more likely to have pension coverage. Disadvantages of Collective Bargaining: A major drawback to using this type of negotiation system is that, even though everyone gets a say in what happens, ultimately, the majority rules, with only a few people determining what happens too many. The integrative bargaining, on the other hand, is the process where both the parties can win—each party contributing something for the benefit of the other party. Distributive bargaining, however, leaves one party a loser. The technique has developed in India only after India got independence and got momentum since then. Collective Bargaining is a method of determining the terms and conditions of employment and settling disputes arising from those terms by negotiating between the employer and the employees or their trade union.
It is not a decree from outside parties. The agreement should be printed and circulated among all the employees so that they know exactly what has been agreed upon between the management and their representatives. As an answer to such problems, labor has come in favor of composite bargaining. The management does not directly deal with employees. It means if there are more than one plant of the firm, the local management should be delegated proper authority to negotiate with the local trade union. However, the Act does stipulate that these workers cannot be prevented from joining labor unions if they wish to do so. This type of bargaining beneficial for both employer and employee as both enjoy the benefits in the form of increased production and the increased pay respectively.