This leads to loyalty from team members. Participation and Empowerment Theory Y managers have become more prominent as this style has been emphasized in workplaces in the latter 20th and early 21st centuries. When an organization does not respond to this, employees will start looking for possibilities to deploy their skills outside their work. Disclaimer: Reliance on this material and any related provision is at your sole risk. In his 1960 book, The Human Side of Enterprise, McGregor proposed two theories by which managers perceive and address employee motivation. At the extreme, this approach leads to verbal and emotional abuse of employees. Theory Y therefore assumes that control, rewards and punishments are not the only ways to stimulate people.
A close reading of The Human Side of Enterprise reveals that McGregor simply argues for managers to be open to a more positive view of workers and the possibilities that create enthusiasm. Managing: A Contemporary Introduction p. Little emphasis is shown towards developing a positive work environment, and recognition and appreciation would be rare. Highly authoritarian tone; rigid instructions B. It always has a ready-made excuse for failure—the innate limitations of all human resources. Micro-managers believe that they must oversee every single task assigned to the employee, and they believe employees will try to avoid work and must be forced with the threat of punishment in order to do their jobs.
In: The Farther Reaches of Human Nature. Theory Y employees are dedicated towards work, thus need minimum supervision. Decision-making is carried out by the individual manager Which of the following are accurate depictions of the leadership style adopted by the managers of many Middle Eastern companies? Responsibility is shared collectively C. Theory-Y believers based firms with empowered employees. With the onslaught of B2B social media, and the break down of formal business approach, business is also being conducted more around Theory Y than old school Theory X. The following are some of the assumptions have in this theory. Leadership style Autocratic Democratic Direction Constant direction is required.
The Hawthorne Group Studies Revisited: A Defense of Theory Y. Kokemuller has additional professional experience in marketing, retail and small business. Consequently, the only way that employees can attempt to satisfy their higher level needs in their work is by seeking more compensation, so it is quite predictable that they will focus on monetary rewards. According to , Theory Z management tends to promote stable employment, high productivity, and high employee morale and satisfaction. Basic needs take priority over these growth needs. After reading you will understand the background and the practical basics of these leadership styles.
Theory Y manager believes that, given the right conditions, most people will want to do well at work and that there is a pool of unused creativity in the workforce. The rationale for the drawn-out time frame is that it helps develop a more dedicated, loyal, and permanent workforce, which benefits the company; the employees, meanwhile, have the opportunity to fully develop their careers at one company. However, beyond this commonality, the attitudes and assumptions they embody are quite different. Employees feel a greater sense of ownership, and customers or clients get more immediate responses to issues or problems. In addition to their preference for a certain leadership style and the work that has to be done, a manager will either opt for Theory X or Theory Y. Set your own objectives to meet their organisational aims and agree these with the managers; be seen to be self-starting, self-motivating, self-disciplined and well-organised - the more the X theory manager sees you are managing yourself and producing results, the less they'll feel the need to do it for you.
Theory Z was developed by William Ouchi, in his book 1981 'Theory Z: How American management can Meet the Japanese Challenge'. Definition of Theory X Theory X is a traditional model of motivation and management. Also, hands-off managers will often involve their employees in the decision-making process. This is the modern approach to management, which emphasizes on a harmonious corporation between employees and control of the company. Theory Y Basics Theory Y management has a more optimistic view of the nature of employees. Theory Y Characteristics Now that you know the difference between Theory X and Theory Y managers, let's go a little deeper into the characteristics of a Theory Y manager.
The soft approach, however, is to be permissive and seek harmony in the hopes that, in return, employees will cooperate when asked. In , he further develops his thinking in terms of Theory X and Theory Y as it relates to performance appraisal. Theory X will sooner be implemented in industrial organizations where activities revolve around a high degree of productivity. The hard approach relies on coercion, implicit threats, close supervision, and tight controls, essentially an environment of command and control. This theory offers a convenient framework for analysing the relationship between to motivation and leadership style. On the other hand, theory Y has a perspective that employees are self-motivated and they like work while at the same time taking duties related to work. Wes also teaches university classes and is a featured speaker at a variety of national conferences.
Monitors follower performance and takes corrective action when deviations from standards occur Positive organizational scholarship: A. The soft appoach is to be permissive and seek harmony with the hope that in return employees will cooperate when asked to do so. In this article, McGregor describes what he refers to as a new approach to performance appraisal, Management by Objectives, an approach consistent with the philosophy of Theory Y. . Under Theory X, people use work to satisfy their lower needs, and seek to satisfy their higher needs in their leisure time. Management professor William Ouchi argued that Western organizations could learn from their Japanese counterparts. You agree that we have no liability for any damages.
Theory X - The Hard Approach and Soft Approach Under Theory X, management approaches can range from a hard approach to a soft approach. Tweak Your Biz is an international, business advice community and online publication. Motivation implies the act of stimulating or inspiring subordinates to pursue the desired course of action. When effective, this benefits the employee and the organization. McGregor's ideas suggest that there are two fundamental approaches to managing people. A need higher in the hierarchy will become a motive of behaviour as long as the needs below it have been satisfied.